Augmented Reality

Augmented Reality modeled virtual objects and real-world information image, graphics and GPS data generated by image processing techniques combined with image or information means enriching for a purpose.

Thanks to Augmented Reality, things can be positioned in the real world or made functional through a mobile phone or a camera on the computer.

There are four major components in the augmented reality technology. These include: camera, visual objects designed on computer, markers that determine their position and size of objects and real-world objects. These four different tools provide user with a reality-enhanced three-dimensional environment by integrating.

Augmented Reality is the connection of the real world to the predetermined target points on the real world at certain points of the material prepared in the real world during the reception of the camera and the result is interpreted by means of the software and the output image is taken simultaneously.

According to Azuman; augmented reality is a technology provided by the interaction of real and virtual objects simultaneously and combined the real-world objects with virtual world objects.

Azuma implies Augmented reality applications have three characteristics. These include:

Military technology underlies Augmented Reality applications as in many technologies.

The release of Augmented Reality technology has also been due to the head-up display. This technology began to be used with the screens in the cockpit standing in front of the fighter pilots and the glasses integrated helmets which is used by infantries.

Through these glasses or screens, some informative data (speed, temperature, altitude, coordinates, radar etc.) has been transferred

Augmented Reality system’s main purpose is to increase the user’s perception and interaction with 3D virtual objects which appears in the same area together with the real world, through the real world completion.

They have gone to a structure as seen in order to facilitate the expression of Augmented Reality and virtual reality.

Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality concepts can be mixed up with each other. The purpose of virtual reality is to create interactive and three-dimensional virtual environments modeling the real world. Augmented Reality seeks to enrich the real world in the real time interactively with the data enhanced virtual computer environment.

Application developers with basic coding architecture, such as starting your own Augmented Reality software from scratch to develop a specialized and intensive as the preferred approach used in augmented reality with the development platform can be used.

In the first step, the image is converted to a binary image and the black marker frame is defined.

In the second step, the orientations and positions of the markers relative to the camera are calculated.

In the third stage, the symbol in the marker is matched to the memory in the memory.

In the fourth stage, Ti transforms of 3D virtual objects are used to align them with pointers.

In the fifth stage, virtual objects are processed in the video frame.

Augmented Reality concept was brought forward in the early 1990s by Boeing researcher Tom Caudell.

This first concept of Augmented Truth has been a system that has been blended into the real world to enhance the user’s perception of virtual elements. The first head-mounted system for Augmented Reality is shown on the screen

Firts applications of the Augmented Reality were head-mounted imagers, simulators, basic level wearable devices, mobile computers, desktop computers, and cameras integrated into them from the outside.

However, the emergence of communication technologies such as the internet, especially mobile devices and related software and applications, by gaining advanced features, and wearable computer technologies to gain different functions, to make it smaller and more functional. Since the 2000s, the development of applications for mobile devices has been accelerated.

  • Sensorama designed by Cinematograph Morton Heilig in 1962
  • the first Augmented Reality System designed by Ivan Sutherland in 1968
  • the Augmented Reality application was developed for a pilot training by Tom Caudell and David Mizell in 1992.
  • The first 2-dimensional label was began to use by Jin Rekimoto in 1996.
  • The first scan was began by Ronald Azuma in 1997.
  • Augmented Reality system was designed by Thomas in 1998 with wearable computers.
  • Bruce Thomas designed the first mobile Augmented Reality game in 2000.
  • In 2007 Augmented Reality applications in the medical field use became widespread.
  • In 2008 the company Metaio has developed the first commercial application of mobile Augmented Reality Museum Guide.
  • In 2012, the first examples of smart glasses named Glass by Google were represented.

Even though Augmented Reality applications are still so new, companies like Google, Microsoft which affect the IT sector in the world are making major investments in this new technology.

And Microsoft has planned to provide users with interactive holograms with Windows 10 and hololens since 2016.

Nowadays, research and development processes of virtual retinal imagers, bionic contact lenses, holograms, mobile applications and smart glasses are ongoing and are began to use in various fields.

Augmented Reality providing a real environment as the combining of virtual objects and the real environments will not be considered, varys according to the purpose of being developed. These include: • Mirroring Based Augmented Reality • Diagnostics Based Augmented Reality • Location-Based Augmented Reality •Outline Based Augmented Reality • Multimedia Based full located Augmented Reality

Smart phones have been developed through the mirror-based Augmented Reality application and it works primarily with the principle of projecting the Augmented Reality functions onto objects.

Mirror-based Augmented Reality brings an interactive keyboard, a phone dialer, or a different interface on a specific object to the level you can use with your fingers.

This technology is generally used in measuring processes of depth and distance of objects, rather than interactive usage.

Diagnostics based Augmented Reality provides information about the objects by focusing on them.

When the camera is shown on the mobile device or computer using the marker (frame code, picture, etc.), the distance between the two is defined. The next stage defines the marker. The 2D or 3D object is removed.

Location-based augmented reality determines the location by using GPS, smartphone speed measurement systems and compass module. In the next step, the location is transmitted to the location scanners via the camera on the determined object.

In the location-based augmented reality systems markers are not used. In this system, the user’s real world location is determined by GPS technology and wireless internet and virtual context-dependent data is displayed to the user in geographically designated places.

Augmented reality applications that users develop using mobile connection methods (3G, 4G, Wi-Fi) and transmit data (information, audio, video, video, map, etc.) to specific destination points. Most commonly used location-based software kits; DroidAR, GeoAR, Wikitude, Layar, Junaio, Hoppala etc. is known as.

Location-based augmented reality applications are mostly developed on areas such as tourism, archeology and geography.

As an example of the logic of location-based augmented reality application; When a tourist operates an augmented reality application in the venue or neighborhood, the GPS location data of that region can be explained in the algorithm within the application and the information bars, bookmarks or some historical images appear on the area where the user’s camera is corrected.

In some cases, there may be the case even if the human eye can not detect. Outline Based Augmented Reality applications are used to provide user with the information to outline some drawing using different camera angles.

For example, it is too difficult to detect a foggy road signs when driving cars. However, advanced cameras can define the outline framework of these signals with the help of Augmented Reality applications in such environments, and can even make it appear the outlines by the driver.

One of the best examples for this type of applications can be Heads Up Display systems used in automobiles. This application provide route information, vehicle speed and path information for displaying from the windshield.

The operating principle of the Augmented Reality application is to display the object to be displayed in 3D on a full-positioned position and to be supported with multimedia objects on the object shown as a marker.

As the usage fields; to provide the display of some areas in medicine, to increase the visibility of objects and give information in the military field, to describe some old antique paintings and sculptures in environments such as museums more lively can be given as examples.

In Augmented Reality applications, the reality can be constituted by adding on the image of the real world environment computer-generated text, 2D or 3D objects, sounds, videos, virtual reality simulations or animations.

Augmented reality application in various devices are used to establish such kind of reality. Head-mounted systems, computers, portable devices, input and output units are used as special imaging systems in Augmented Reality technology.

Image processing in Augmented Reality Systems is divided into two categories such as the video-based systems and optical based systems. The main difference between the two systems can be expressed as where viewing of digital data generated.

Optical-based augmented reality systems digital data prepared on computer are displayed directly with the head-engaging glasses system. In this technique the most remarkable systems are the retinal scan images.

In the video-based Augmented Reality systems developed digital data is displayed on a separate device. In addition to being the cheapest and easiest imaging technique that can be applied, it offers advantages such as mediating Augmented Reality objects and removing objects as desired.

Smartphones, tablets and computers can be given as examples of such devices. Video-based Augmented Reality systems work with the camera detecting the pointer in the environment and displaying digital objects on a live camera stream.

Augmented Reality systems are divided into three categories according to their display positions. These are; 1) Back Type (Head- mounted) 2) Hand-held (portable) 3) Spatial Type

Head-mounted Augmented Reality Viewers allows direct contact with the real environment. Such systems have become more useful with the improvements made in the past to the present. Some of the developed head-type viewer model are seen at the screen.

There are three types of handheld viewer types: video, optics and projector viewers. This type of imager has recently had a great impact on the use of Augmented Reality in everyday life. Examples of hand-held viewers are provided on the screen.

All transactions of augmented reality are generated by computer infrastructure. In general, high-performance PCs are required for performance in real-time 3D models.

However, considering that the advent of this technology on more mobile applications; It can be understood that the most important limitation for Augmented Reality technology is hardware. Under this topic, computers and cameras, Netbooks, Notebook, Ipad, Iphone, Android mobile processor can be considered as infrastructure.

Augmented Reality technology meet users with smart glasses, wearable computers, smart watches, smart lenses (bionic contact lenses), retinal imagers, holograms, virtual retinal imagers.

Hardware units required for Augmented Reality viewer can be specified as a spectator input devices and computers.

Similarly, there are three basic components of Augmented Reality system. These are; 1. Physical world “sensors”, 2. “processor in order to provide the necessary interaction”, 3. an appropriate ‘screen’ in order to display the combination of the virtual and the real World. In addition to these three components, it is expressed that buttons, keyboards and other tools comprising “input devices” can be accepted as an fourth component.

Smart Watches allow users to keep personal data and simplify daily activities. Today, many electronic companies, especially smartphone manufacturers, have started to produce smart watches.

Google Glass is a project of the company which was carried out in 2013. There are High-resolution camera, microphone, bone conduction audio converter, integrated prismatic display screen, a variety of sensors and wireless network connection on the glass.

Hololens-Microsoft is an intelligent Augmented Reality glass, which came onto the market in 2016.

With Hololens users can interact with both their physical environment and the environment enriched with holograms created by the glass.

Oculus-Rift, that met users in 2016, consists of the movement sensor following the head motion, infrared and light sensors, headphone structure that provides three-dimensional sound effect. The device creates a feeling as if the user resides in the real world and by providing a detailed look at the object, pulls the user to the virtual world.

Wristbands, rings, necklases; Smart wristbands hold many data as sleep patterns, the number of steps, heart rate monitors, water consumption, the amount of burned calories. Smart rings can be used as electronic ID, signature and application lock. Smart necklaces can be also used for ground-direction detection for individuals with special requirements in conjunction with GPS modules.

Smart Clothes and Tattoos; Smart clothes is used to detect changes, to collect various data on the human body and to respond if necessary. Smart tattoos are the froms working on human skin, sending and receiving data and working as an interface.

For Augmented Reality an interface that interprets virtual and real environment with priority is required. Mostly these interface is launched to the market by some software firms as a registered software package.

This software is designed with tools that provide convenience in augmented reality applications. Software generally comes with the kinds of Modeling Tool, Marker Production Tool, Performance Enhancer Engine Tool, Mobile Application Tool and Web Interface Tool.

Many software development environments (SDK) using Augmented reality technology in order to develop mobile applications are available. The most well-known of these is given the access connections. For many of the C++ SDK, c #, Java, Unity 3D (game) programming languages APIs are available.

Augmented Reality software can be examined through two types: SDK or the Browser.

Easy integration of Augmented Reality tools and fast creation of user interfaces is the most widely used and widely used ARToolKit software. ARToolKit was released as an open source in 2001 after its first presentation at SIGGRAPH in 1999.

Besides that ARToolKit, written in the C programming language, is the first software which uses the first Augmented Reality library with open source code, the usage of it is nowadays quite common.

ArToolKit software; Moving to Java and C # in 2008, NyARToolKit In 2009 he moved to Flash to develop FLARToolKit. Finally in 2013, JSARToolKit for HTML5 environment was developed.

Vuforia SDK on which Augmented Reality applications can be developed is free and allows Unity 3D with the use of software in the same environment for Augmented Reality applications both for IOS allows android development.

Augmented Reality browser environments developed by Web-based and mobile Augmented Reality content. Users can easily create Augmented Reality content through browser systems and display it. “Augment”, “Aurasma”, “Daqry,” “Layar” and “Wikitude” are the most downloaded and used browsers.

Layar(Netherlands), Total Immersion (France), Wikitude (Austria), Zugara (USA), Aurasma(UK) are the leading Augmented Reality software companies in the world.

Nowadays, the usage of Augmented Reality application development environments such as Vuforia, EasyAR and Kudan has been growing rapidly.

Augmented Reality SDK is called Augmented Reality SDK, which enables the Augmented Reality SDK to run smoothly and includes different types of platforms.

There are some software companies that work on AR technology and develope software packages. These companies develop software packages both Android and iOS platforms and Javascript, HTML, CSS, and jQuery files are located in them. These files allow the software to be edited & changed as desired.

Many Augmented Reality software kits (SDKs) have been developed to deliver Augmented Reality applications through mobile devices. As examples; Artoolkit, AndAR, ARcrowd, ARlab, ARmedia, DroidAR, HoloBuilder, Vuforia, Metaio, BeyondAR, Layar etc. In addition, Augmented Reality software kits such as Xloudia and Catchroom work on a system known as without any markers.

Augmented Reality Development Tools and web pages are: Vuforia SDK

VUFORIA is the leading Augmented Reality platform. Vuforia is a software platform for augmented reality applications that support on both Android and iOS platform.

EasyAR is an easy to use and free augmented reality engine. It includes support for multi-target tracking, detection, monitoring, and also optimizations to reduce power. It offers very simple examples for local development. there are also some advanced topics for creating real-time target from the camera image and 3D coloring book.

Wikitude; has an environment that supports the two different operating systems as Android and IOS via its SDK. Wikitude is quite handy and has many samples. At the same time Wikitude’s own software development studio is available. However, projects can be developed using Android Studio, Swift as a software environment.

ARTOOLKIT; Augmented Reality application is a frequently used software library in C language. Downloading compiled SDKs for IOS, Android, Linux, Windows and Mac OS X. ARToolKit includes stereo and optical-looking support is, integrated with a number of smart glasses and allows for easy metering on the new devices.

Kudan AR; is a professional Augmented Reality SDKs to develop interesting applications for mobile devices. The Kudan AR SDK is an all-in-one SDK that can support pointers or ambiguous tracking and location requirements by professional developers. It supports high-quality 3D graphics with real-time tissue penetration. Augmented Reality SDKs have native platform APIs such as ObjectiveC for iOS and Java for Android.

Layar; Blippar Augmented Reality SDK is a platform where the user can quickly embed the application for mobile Augmented Reality development quickly and easily using the service tools.

Open Source Augmented Reality applications and web pages are:

Augmented Reality Application Solutions and web pages are:

In order to create an Augmented Reality system, visuals or images are defined in which virtual contents are defined to enable virtual content to be displayed in real time in real environments.

Markers provide the positional relationship between the real world and the virtual world. These markers consisted of 2-bit relatively rough shapes during their first years of application; started to be used as positioning markers

Markers is an important part of Augmented Reality. Without this recognition points, giving location information to a computer is not easy.

With each pointer x, y and z axes representing a coordinate system are obtained.

A pointer is usually created from black and white abstract square pattern. When looking at the world in a physical camera images on this pointer, it sends the coordinates of the central point of the computer software.

As a final process, the virtual displayed object is usually placed in the center of the pointer. This process performed by computers is also called ‘tracking’. This is more appropriate to be quite contrast or even a black-and-white in order to be monitored properly.

An Augmented Reality app developed with Augmented Reality software kits detects the 3D coordinates with the image processing technology within the specified target as a pointer to the live video stream. Then virtual models are displayed overlapping over the target pointer within the same software.

Creation of the most realistic image between the real world and the virtual world, and glasses that allow the user to perceive the reality and the reality simultaneously and equally, are perhaps the most important tools in the future of Augmented Reality technology.

These glasses are connected to the computer, from the camera on the computer to the real world while sending images from the PC on the LED screen to the user moves. This gives the user a realistic experience

Considering that wearable technologies such as Google glasses and smart watches will become widespread in the future, not only by smartphones and tablets, but also with the help of internet access, the content that is observed in life can be enriched with augmented reality applications, a catchy, memorable effect can be created.

Mobile Augmented Reality applications are software designed for devices such as smartphones and tablets that are widely used today. These mobile applications are designed to be compatible with at least one of the iOS, Android or Windows Phone mobile operating systems, and must be equipped to operate the camera and the required applications.

SDK for mobile applications and web pages are:

Thanks to the many applications used in Augmented Reality technology, 3D models of objects for smartphones and tablets can be prepared in ways that affect the user. Some mobile Augmented Reality applications that are supposed to be used as instructional are given.

Alive; It is owned by an India based company and is used by more than 500 new augmented reality definitions on a monthly basis.

Augment; Is an application that combines the concept of size and environment in real time. It provides three-dimensional visualization in Augmented Reality environment.

Aurasma; With this app, individuals can create simple Augmented Reality objects and actions called Aura. Several companies and media organizations can use to develop their own applications.

Blippar; is created as a mobile augmented reality application developed in the UK in 2011. The pre-processed data enables the physical world to be seen interactively.

Daqri; is an application developed for educational purposes. Elements of augmented reality applications such as 4D and 4D Anatomy has been designed thanks to this application.

Layar; was released As the first mobile Augmented Reality application in 2009. In this application, GPS, compass and other sensor systems are used. It specializes in making click-to-print media, such as newspapers and magazines, clickable.

Octagon Studio; The application is also known as the reflection from the 4D technology education. With this application many mobile Augmented Reality applications called Octaland 4D, Space 4D, 4D Animal, Dinosaur 4D and 4D Humanoids are designed.